The "right handed" variation of glucose is called dextrose.
Fructose tastes much sweeter than glucose or even the combination of fructose + glucose (= sucrose). That's why big food processing companies use "high fuctose" sugars because they get more bang for the buck by using less of a sweeter tasting sugar. On the other hand, to continue the digression, lots of hard-core CocaCola drinkers like the less sweet sugars since it requires more which makes a thicker, more viscous soft drink..
See the entry for "sucrose" for a description of how the "high fructose" syrup is made.
Fructose is also called levulose because that form rotates light in a left handed direction.
It is derived from sugar beets or sugar cane that are crushed and dissolved in water. The raw syrup is boiled down to concentrate it to a point where some fraction crystallizes. The remaining heavy syrup (see "molasses") is separated from the 95+% pure sugar. The crystals are further processed several times to increase its purity yielding, eventually, the pure white crystals we commonly use. Some other commonly used sugars are also produced during the processing.
A complaint in the early days of modern homebrewing was that using table sugar in beer-making resulted in a "cidery" beer. The symptoms were that a beer made with table sugar that was added to the boil produced a cidery flavor that faded after several weeks in the bottle. Therefore the rule of thumb became 'avoid all table sugar'. While this is still a good idea when using malt extract, this old-(ale)wives tale is misleading. That defect most likely came from poor yeast due to a too low pitch, insufficient free-available-nitrogen, or a lack of other necessary yeast building materials in the wort. Table sugar can be used in small amounts with no harm and it is certainly cheaper to use for priming.
This simple colorless sugar will lighten the body of a beer since it can be completely fermented. It also lightens the beer color (hmm, negative lovibond rating? :-)
The inversion process involves adding acid and is usually done at high temperatures to speed up the process. Alternately, the invertase enzyme can be used.
Demerara is the UK term; turbinado the US (and Spanish language?) term. Demerara is usually a dark brown shade while turbinado is lighter, more of a tan or taupe color. It is ~98% sugar with some residual proteins and unfermentable carbohydrates present.
Regular treacle is an inverted sugar produced from the residue of refinement. The acid treatment darkens it. Molasses is filtered and may have a sulfur compound added to sterilize and stabilize it.
"Black treacle" is roughly the same flavor as "blackstrap molasses" however treacle may be produced differently. While there are differences between the differently named syrups, there is also a wide variability within syrups of the same name! Find one company's product you like since that may be the only level of consistency obtainable.
Light molasses is roughly 90% sugar. Blackstrap is about 50% sugar and has a wide variety of crud remaining.
Lyle & Tate's product is derived from cane sugar. The syrup has been inverted using a strong acid (hydrochloric acid, I think) and then counter-acted by the addition of base (NaOH) after a short time. Some of the golden color is from the acid treatment. A salty taste comes from the acid + base combining to form NaCl.
Compare this to Piloncillo (Mexican brown sugar) which is a semi-refined granulated sugar.
Candy sugar is sucrose. Its production is the same as for rock candy (i.e., slow crystallization of a concentrated sugar solution) made from straight sucrose so a brewer should be able to substitute regular sugar for it. Dark candy sugar has been carmelized before it is crystalized.
Use wherever you would use straight glucose/dextrose such as priming.
It is about 75% fermentable sugar; the remainder is water, proteins, some minerals, etc.
See: Sugars in Winemaking